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দুই বা ততোধিক শব্দ মিলে যদি একটি Parts of Speech-এর মতো কাজ করে তবে তাকে Phrase বা শব্দগুচ্ছ বলে। Phrase-এ সাধারণত কোনো Finite verb থাকে না ।

Kinds of Phrases : অর্থ, কাজ ও অবস্থানভেদে Phrase কয়েক প্রকারের হয়ে থাকে । 

1) Noun Phrase

2) Adjective Phrase

3) Adverbial Phrase

4) Prepositional Phrase

5) Conjunctional Phrase

6) Interjectional Phrase

7) Participle Phrase

8) Infinitive Phrase

9) Verbal Phrase

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Noun Phrase 

একাধিক শব্দ নিয়ে গঠিত শব্দগুচ্ছ যদি Noun-এর কাজ করে তবে তাকে Noun Phrase বলে । এখানে খুবই গুরুত্বপূর্ণ একটি কথা মনে রাখতে হবে যে ৬টি বিষয় Noun-এর কাজ করে থাকে :

A) Subject : দুই বা ততোধিক শব্দ যদি Subject-এর অবস্থানে বসে তাহলে সেই শব্দগুচ্ছ Noun-এর কাজ করবে, আর সেটি হবে Noun Phrase |
Qualifying in the admission test is not easy.

B) Object : Object সবসময় Noun-এর কাজ করে। তাই Object-এর স্থলে যে শব্দগুচ্ছ আসবে সেটি হবে Noun Phrase.

I know the names of those girls.

C) Preposition-এর Object : Preposition-এর পরে যে শব্দগুচ্ছ আসে Noun Phrase। তেমনি Determiners-এর পরেও Noun হয়।
He came to our house.

D) Subject Complement : Verb-এর পরের অংশ যদি Subject-এর সমান হয় বা Subject কেই নির্দেশ করে তাহলে Verb-এর পরের অংশকে উক্ত Subject-এর Complement বলে।
Bipul is a man of letters. 

E) Object Complement : পাশাপাশি অবস্থিত দুটি Object-এর মধ্যে ২য় Object টি দ্বারা যদি ১ম টিকেই বুঝায় তাহলে ২য় টিকে ১ম টির Object Complement বলে । Object Complement সাধারণত Noun-এর কাজ করে।
We elected Rana captain of our class.

F) Appositive : কোনো Noun-এর পরিচিতিমূলক বর্ণনা দেয় এমন শব্দগুচ্ছকে Appositive বা Case in Apposition বলে। Appositive noun- এর কাজ করে। করে বিধায় এটি Noun Phrase হয়।

Masud Rana, the captain of our class, is a gentle boy.

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Adjective Phrase 

যে শব্দগুচ্ছ Noun-এর পূর্বে বা পরে বসে উক্ত Noun-কে বিশেষিত (modify) করে তাকে Adjective Phrase বলে । 

He bought a ring made of gold.

 A woman with a veil over her body approached the doctor.

There is no hard and fast rule in film making. 

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Verbal Phrase

 কোনো শব্দগুচ্ছ যদি verb-এর মতো কাজ করে তবে তাকে Verbal phrase বলে । 


Do not look down upon the poor.
We look for the brilliant students.

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Adverbial Phrase

যে শব্দগুচ্ছ  verb-কে করে তাকে Adverbial Phrase বলে । Verb-কে, কী বা কাকে দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে object (Noun) পাওয়া যায় কিন্তু How, Where, When, Why দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে Adverb পাওয়া যায় । 

Last week he received the amount.
He lives in the suburb of Dhaka. 

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Prepositional Phrase

দুই বা ততোধিক শব্দ যদি একটিমাত্র Preposition-এর মতো ব্যবহৃত হয় তবে তাকে Prepositional Phrase বলে । অনুরূপভাবে, কোনো Simple Preposition তার পরবর্তী Noun/Noun Phrase সহ  Prepositional Phrase গঠন করতে পারে।

He was absent on account of illness.
Raihan stood in front of me.
We were waiting for the bus.

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Conjunctional Phrase

কোনো শব্দগুচ্ছ যদি একটিমাত্র Conjunction-এর মতো কাজ করে তাহলে তাকে Conjunctional Phrase বলে। যেমন— as well as, as soon as, as far as, along with, as much as ইত্যাদি.

Fahim as well as his friends has decided to leave London. 

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Interjectional Phrase

কয়েকটি শব্দ মিলে যদি Interjection-এর কাজ করে তবে তাকে Interjectional Phrase বলে ।
What a pity! The man is dead.

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Infinitive Clause/Phrase: To + verb-এর base form, to+verb-এর base form + object এবং to + verb-এর base form + adverbial কে infinitive clause বলে। এদেরকে infinitive phrase ও বলা হয়।


He wants to go.

This is the way to see city.

We need to act quickly.

I am glad to know your success.

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Participle Phrase

যে কোনো participle তার object বা adverbial সহ Participle Phrase গঠন করে থাকে ।
Loudly knocking at the door, he demanded admission.

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Definition of Absolute Phrase

A phrase having a subject but no finite verb and modifying the full sentence is referred to as an Absolute phrase.

Examples of Absolute Phrase

  • My cousin finally returning to the homeland, we will be able to have fun in the family gatherings like before.
  • The singer’s performance in the concert, the organizers were so happy.
  • Jeff is waiting for his friends, having the food cooked in the microwave oven.
  • Having the work done early, I decided to go home.
  • The concert finished, we all were ready to go the restaurant.
  • Being a doctor, you should know it.
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An appositive phrase is a noun, noun phrase, or series of nouns that renames the noun next to it.

Examples of an Appositive Phrase

Some examples of appositive phrases would be the following:

My puppy, a rambunctious Boston Terrier, loves to play fetch.

A record-setting swimmer, Jada practically lived at the pool.

New Zealand, the first country to pass suffrage laws, granted voting rights to women 27 years before the United States.

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A gerund phrase is a phrase that consists of a gerund, its object, and any modifiers.

  • Removing the dressing quickly is the best way.
    • gerund: "removing"
    • direct object: "the dressing"
    • modifier: "quickly"
  • I like singing songs in the shower.
    • gerund: "singing"
    • direct object: "songs"
    • modifier: "in the shower"
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Foreign words are those words that have roots from other languages or Simply we can define it as a word that is adopted from other language. They are normally written in Italics to identify that they are foreign. Most of these foreign words are taken from latin.


1. ab incunabulis: from the cradle
2. a bon chat, bon rat: to a good cat, a good rat (retaliation in kind)
3. a bouch ouverte: with open mouth (eagerly, uncritically)
4. ab ovo usque ad mala: from egg to apples (from beginning to end)
5. a bras ouverts: with open arms
6. ab uno disce omnes: from one learn to know all
7. a coup sur: with sure stroke (surely)
8. acte gratuit: gratuitous impulsive act
9. ad arbitrium: at will (arbitrarily)
10. ad extremum: to the extreme (at last)
11. ad majorem Dei gloriam: to the greater glory of God
12. ad patres: to his fathers (deceased)
13. ad unguem: to the fingernail (exactly)
14. ad utrumque paratus: prepared for either event
15. aegri somnia: a sick man’s dreams
16. aequam servare mentem: to preserve a calm mind
17. aequo animo: with even mind (calmly)
18. aere perennius: more lasting than bronze
19. a huis clos: with closed doors
20. a l’abandon: carelessly
21. a la belle etoile: under the beautiful star (in the open air at night)
22. a la bonne heure: at a good time (all right)
23. a la page: at the page (up to the minute)
24. alter idem: another self
25. a maximis ad minima: from the greatest to the least
26. a marveille: marvelously
27. amicus humani generis: friend of the human race
28. amicus usque ad aras: a friend as far as to the alters (a friend to the last extremity)
29. ami de cour: court friend
30. armamentum ad baculum: argument of the staff (appeal to force)
31. arrectis auribus: with ears pricked up
32. a torte et a travers: wrong and crosswise (without rhyme or reason)
33. au bout de son latin: at the end of one’s Latin (at the end of one’s mental resources)
34. au fait: to the point (socially correct)
35. au grand serieux: in all serious
36. au mieux: on the best terms (on intimate terms)
37. aurea mediocritas: the golden mean
38. auspicium melioris aevi: an omen of a better age
39. ausssitot dit, aussitot fait: no sooner said than done
40. autres temps, autres moeurs: other times, other customs
41. aut vincere aut mori: either to conquer or to die
42. bellum omnium contra onnes: war of all against all
43. bien-pensant: right minded (orthodox)
44. bon gre, mal gre: whether with good grace or bad (willy-nilly)
45. bonis avibus: under good auspices
45. brutum fulmen: insensible thunderbolt (futile threat of display of force)
47. cadit quaestio: the question drops (the argument collapses)
48. capable de tout: capable of anything (unpredictable)
49. cause sine qua non: an indispensable cause or condition
50. cheval de bataille: war-horse (argument constantly relied on)
51. comedie humaine: human comedy (the whole variety of human life)
52. comedie larmoyante: tearful comedy (sentimental comedy)
53. comagnon de voyage: traveling companion
54. compte rendu: report
55. concordia discors: discordant harmony
56. confessio fidei: confession of faith
57. contemptus mundi: contempt for the world
58. coup de maitre: masterstroke
59. coup d’essai: experiment
60. coute que coute: cost what it may
61. cri de coeur: cry of the heart
62. crise de conscience: crisis of conscience
63. crise de nerfs: crisis of nerves
64. crux criticorum: crux of critics
65. cum grano salis: with a grain of salt
66. custos morum: guardian of morals (censor)
67. de bonne grice: with good grace
68. de l’audace, encore de l’audace, et toujours de l’audace: audacity, more audacity, and ever more audacity
69. de mal en pis: from bad to worse
70. Deo favente: with God’s favor
71. de profundis: out of the depths
72. desipere in loco: to indulge in trifling at the proper time
73. Deus absconditus: hidden God (unknowable God)
74. dies faustus: lucky day
75. dies infaustus: unlucky day
76. dies irae: day of wrath
77. esprit d’le escalier: the wit of the staircase
78. faux bonhomme: false friend
79. faux-naif: affectedly simple or childlike
80. festina lente: make haste slowly
81. feux d’artifice: fireworks, or show of wit
82. folie de grandeur: delusion of greatness, megalomania
83. furor loquendi: rage for speaking
84. furor poeticus: rage for poetry
85. furor scribendi: rage for writing
86. gens du mond: fashionable people
87. guerre a outrance: war to the uttermost
88. haut gout: slight taint of decay
89. hic illae lacrimae: hence these tears
90. homme d’esprit: witty man
91. in omnia paratus: ready for all things
92. in partibus infidelium: in the land of the infidels
93. in statu quo ante bellum: just like before the war
94. januis clausis: behind closed doors
95. jeu de mots: play on words
96. ktema es ai: a possession for ever (enduring art or literature)
97. la belle dame sans merci: the beautiful lady without mercy
98. lacrimae rerum: tragedy of life
99. lapsus calami: slip of the pen
100. lapsus linguae: slip of the tongue

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Degree of physics
Philosophical Doctorate
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Physics
towards end
From the beginning
in the mean time
top to bottom

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